How To Exercise
important tips and strategies

It’s very important for you to know How to Exercise correctly so you can target your Workouts and Cardio Training to reach your Health and Fitness Goals. It’s no good just grabbing your equipment and not following a guide or ”Training Principle”, you will leave yourself open to making only slight or No Progress and becoming disheartened.

How to Exercise covers your Energy Systems and Training Programming to maximize your efforts and give you a direction to follow. Once you have an understanding of these Principles, you can make an informed decision about "What is Right for You."

In the World of Exercise there are two kinds of Energy Systems that your body will use automatically to supply energy to your working muscles and these are:


This is the energy system that you use for everyday activities. It is so called because the energy is produced in the presence of Oxygen or Air. The more you exercise in the “Aerobic Range” the more efficient your cardiovascular system becomes in carrying oxygen to the working muscles.

The efficiency of the cardiovascular system in relaying oxygen to the muscles improves, so does the amount of oxygen used by the muscles increases. This is expressed in terms of “Millilitres of Oxygen per Kilogram of Body Weight per Minute” or Maximal Oxygen Uptake, (Max VO2).

So an increased Max VO2 ability would indicate an increase of the heart to pump blood to the lungs to ventilate oxygen and for the muscles to take up that oxygen. This also indicates a corresponding increase in your Fitness.

Reactions take place in specialised muscle cells called Mitochondria which make ATP Energy. The Aerobic System requires Complex Carbohydrates and Fats for fuel (not Protein) and this allows the formation of ATP Energy with water and carbon dioxide as by-products, where the water is used by the body and the carbon dioxide is exhaled.

Activities that use the Aerobic System are those which:

  • Have an increased heart rate over 120 bpm.
  • Utilize large muscle groups within the body.
  • Are carried out over an extended period of time, 15 – 20 minutes or greater.
  • Some of these activities would include, Walking, Swimming, Cycling, Dancing, Skipping Rope, etc…

    The second Energy System used by your body is:


    This energy system does not use oxygen and it can be broken down into two different systems.

    The first being the Lactate System. This uses Glycogen stored in the muscles. It is broken down to form Pyruvic Acid and then ATP energy to replace that which has been burnt up (utilised) in the muscles. This reaction is called Glycolosis and leaves a by-product called “Lactic Acid”, which then leads to fatigue in the muscles.

    Muscle fatigue can occur after approximately 30 – 40 seconds of intense or extremely vigorous activity and complete exhaustion or muscle failure after 60 seconds. Once the Lactic Acid has formed it can take up to 45 minutes to be removed from the system and for the individual to recover. The rate at which it is removed may be increased through the use of light exercise, i.e. Walking; however the amount of exercise must low.

    The second Anaerobic System is the Phosphate System. This is used when the body does not have sufficient time to break down glycogen in the muscles. An activity such as lifting a heavy weight or where other intense bursts of energy are required. The ATP already in the muscles mixes with Phosphocretine another energy substance held in the muscles and provides energy for approximately 5 – 10 seconds of maximum effort. Power Lifting, moving a resistance as quickly as possible or explosive movements utilize this energy system.

    So depending on your Goals and which energy system you take advantage of will give an indication to you on how to exercise.

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    As well as different Energy Systems, How to Exercise covers different Training Principles that can be utilized to gain your best results in the various disciplines.

    These can be divided into the following types:

    Training for:

  • Muscle Mass. (Hyperthrophy)
  • Muscular Strength.
  • Muscular Speed
  • Muscular Endurance.
  • The following "How to Exercise" table will provide guidelines into these forms of Training,


    HypertrophyStrengthSpeed (Heavy)Speed (Light)Endurance
    Reps6 – 8 beginner, 8 12 advanced1 - 51 - 55 - 1212 - 30
    Sets3 - 102 - 63 - 83 - 81 - 3
    TempoSlow 45 – 60 secModerateAccelerate in the Concentric phaseA fast move in the Concentric phaseModerate to Lactic phase
    Rest Period60 secs5 mins5 mins5 mins15 – 60 secs
    1 Max Rep %70 – 80%85%Greater than 85%Less than 75%Between 30 – 70%

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    Another important aspect of How to Exercise is to include at least three Cardio Training sessions a week. Your Cardio Training can be any type that you enjoy. It could be anything from Walking, Cycling, Jogging, Swimming, Inline Skating, etc.

    This type of Cardio Workout will increase overall Fitness Capacity (Cardiovascular Endurance) and what's more will assist you in Weight Loss and Weight Control.

    If you don't do any Cardio Training at the moment, I ask you to please consider including such a Workout as the benefits to your Health and Well-being cannot be understated.


    Another "How to Exercise" essential is to know about Target Training Heart Rates. It is very important to have an understanding of Training Heart Rates so you can:

  • Calculate Training Intensities.
  • Target Training Zones.
  • Understand H/R Calculating Techniques.
  • Understand Maximum H/R.


    Body Balance and Coordination are two major aspects of How to Exercise that is often taken for granted and overlooked. When you can incorporate and enhance your Balance and Coordination, you will gain better results from your Workout Routines and benefit from increased performance.

    Discover how you can:

  • Develop your Balance and Coordination.
  • Sharpen your reflexes.
  • Increase your Core Fitness.
  • Increase your training intensity without increasing your load or resistance.

  • WHAT IS F.I.T.T ?

    how to exercise

    How to Exercise can also be looked at from the point of view of this acronym,


    Where the F represents "Frequency". So that you can improve your Fitness levels when doing Cardio Training, you should aim for 3 – 4 times a week. Studies have shown that this Frequency of times can maintain good fitness levels and if more regular exercise is done than an increased amount of fitness can be obtained.

    In order to maintain a training effect, exercise should be done on a regular basis, as significant reductions in fitness can arise after 2 weeks of inactivity. Remember not to waste all the good work that you may have already achieved by skipping Workouts. As we all know time passes too fast and before you know it you could have missed days of potentially great Workouts.

    Always make time for yourself and your Good Health.

    Where the I represents "Intensity". Intensity can be looked at from the perspective of a percentage of your Heart Rate. You may choose to Workout at a predetermined percentage of 60, 70 or 80% of your Maximum Heart Rate.

    Click here for more information on "Calculating Training Heart Rates".

    The first T represents "Time" or the duration of your Workout Session. Benefits can be made with as little as 15 – 20 minutes for the Beginner and reaching 45 – 60 minutes for the Advanced or seasoned Athlete.

    It is not recommended for anyone beginning an Exercise regime to go beyond 30 minutes, as your initial Fitness Levels will be low. But as your Workout Sessions grow, so will your Fitness and therefore you can extend the Time.

    The second T represents "Type". The Type of Exercise, usually Aerobic, that is being performed. To increase Cardiovascular endurance your exercise should be carried out continually at a sustained rate. Look to do some form of vigorous Cardio Training such as, Power Walking, Jogging, Cycling, Swimming, etc…

    For the F.I.T.T. acronym to work, you will have to select an activity that you find challenging and enjoyable and you are keen to follow for a long period of time. You will need a method of measuring your achievements to keep track of your improvements, i.e. a Journal or a Heart Rate Monitor (or better still a combination of both).

    Always remember to make your Workouts and Exercise Enjoyable.

    Look forward to your Workouts and use the time to concentrate on yourself.

    "Reward Yourself, You Deserve it".

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